What is an APA References list?
A references list is a formatted list of all sources you cited within your paper. Any time you quote, paraphrase, summarize, or include information that you’ve read from an outside source, you must include that source in your references list, correctly formatted in APA style. For help making a References list, view our Annotated References List.
For help citing different types of sources, refer to our downloadable formatting guide:
What information goes in an APA References list?
Each item in your references list requires general publication information, including but not limited to:
- Author’s name
- Year of publication
Because there are many types of sources, additional information may be required. You will see the most common kinds of sources in the sample references list below.
What are the key rules of creating an APA References list?
There are unique formatting rules to follow for each reference entry, but generally, remember these key rules for the whole references list:
- Center the word “References” in bold font at the top of a new page.
- Double spacing is used throughout this page.
- Alphabetize entries by authors’ last names.
- Create a hanging indent for each individual source you add to the list. A hanging indent is where the second and all the following lines of a paragraph are indented more than the first. To make a hanging indent, highlight your citation and use the keyboard shortcut CTRL+T.
References List Examples
Expand the options below for help formatting your references list entries in APA format.
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume #(issue #), pp–pp. https://doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx
Beattie, B. R., & LaFrance, J. T. (2006). The law of demand versus diminishing marginal utility. Review of Agricultural Economics, 28(2), 263–271. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9353.2006.00286.x
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume #(issue #), pp–pp. http://
Collins, M. E., Garlington, S., & Cooney, K. (2015). Relieving human suffering: Compassion in social policy. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 42(1), 95–120. https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3889&context=jssw
Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year, Month Day). Title of article. Name of Magazine, volume #(issue), pp-pp.
Dafny, L. S., & Lee, T. H. (2016, December). Health care needs real competition and every stakeholder has a role. Harvard Business Review, 76-87.
Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year, Month Day). Title of article. Name of Magazine, volume #(issue), pp-pp. http://
Clay, R. A. (2014, December). Taking action against Ebola. Monitor on Psychology, 45(11), 14. https://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/12/ebola
Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year, Month Day). Title of article. Name of Newspaper, Section.
Rowe, K. (2020, January 8). Training center shut down due to termites. The San Diego Union Tribune, C3.
Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year, Month Day). Title of article. Name of Newspaper. http://
McAllister, J. (2017, July 5). Beaver Stadium prepares for inaugural concert. Centre Daily Times. http://www.centredaily.com/entertainment/this-weekend/article159672269.html
Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year, Month Day). Title of blog post. Name of Blog. http://
Hardy, M. (2010, October 29). E-ZPass is a life-saver (literally). Freakonomics. http://freakonomics.com/2010/10/29/e-zpass-is-a-life-saver-literally/
Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi.org/xxxxxxxx
Ponniah, J., Hu, Y.-C., & Kumar, P. R. (2015). A clean slate approach to secure wireless networking. Now Foundations and Trends. https://doi.org/10.1561/1300000037
Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Title of book. Publisher. https://URL
Hesse, H. (1951). Siddhartha. New Directions. https://www.fulltextarchive.com/pdfs/Siddharthax5773.pdf
Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Title of article or story. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (edition, pp. XX-XX). Publisher name. http:// (Original work published date)
Shuhua, L. (2007). The night of midautumn festival (N. K. Mao, Trans.). In J. S. M. Lau & H. Goldblatt (Eds.), The Columbia anthology of modern Chinese literature (2nd ed., pp. 95-102). Columbia University Press. https://bit.ly/2MKKUOp (Original work published 1928)
Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Title of book. Publisher.
Diaz–Rico, L. T. (2008). A course for teaching English learners. Pearson.
Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year). Article or chapter title. In Editor First Initial. Second Initial. Editor Last Name (Ed.), Book title (# edition, page range of chapter). Publisher.
Zhang, L. F., & Sternberg, R. J. (2010). Learning in a cross-cultural perspective. In V. G. Aukrust (Ed.), Learning and cognition in education (3rd ed., pp. 16-22). Elsevier.
For any webpage or website likely to change or be edited over time, include “Retrieved Month Day, Year, from” prior to URL.
Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Date). Title of webpage. Title of website. http://
Lad, K. (2016, August 28). An overview of the colorful traditional Mexican clothing. Buzzle. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/traditional-mexican-clothing.html
Name of Organization. (Publication Date). Title of webpage. http://
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008, March). Police and detectives. http://bls.gov/oco/pdf/ocos160.pdf
Title of webpage. (Publication Date). http://
Freud’s structural theory: The id, the ego, and the superego. (n.d.). http://www.vakkur.com/psy/freud.html
Name of Group. (Year, Month day). Title of report (Report number, if available) [Description, if needed]. Publisher name (omit if same as Name of Group). http://
U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2019, July). The DHS strategic plan: Fiscal years 2020-2024 [Agency strategy publication]. https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/19_0702_plcy_dhs-strategic-plan-fy20-24.pdf
AuthorLastName, Initial. (Year, Month day). Title of article. Site name. http://
Dunn, J. (2020, January 6). Recycling collectors bothered by messy bins. CNN. http://cnn.com/article/recycling-collectors-bothered-by-messy-bins
AuthorLastName, Initial. (Year, Month day). Title of website. http://
US Department of Health & Human Services. (n.d.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved January 28, 2020 from http://www.cdc.gov
Avoid citing entire websites when possible. Try instead to cite specific webpages or articles. When author and site name match, omit site name.
AuthorLastName, Initial. (Year, Date). Title of guidance [Instructor guidance]. http://login.uagc.edu
Jones, M. (2020, January 6). Writing an annotated bibliography [Instructor guidance]. http://login.uagc.edu
AuthorLastName, Initial. (Year, date). Name of discussion thread [Online discussion board]. http://login.uagc.edu
Dunn, J. (2020, January 6). Week 3 discussion [Online discussion board]. http://login.uagc.edu
Director’s Last Name, Initials (Director). (Year). Title of film [Description]. Production Company.
Sorkin, R. (Director). (2018). Tidewater [Film]. American Resilience Project. https://www.pbs.org/video/tidewater-mgqr0m
The director should be cited as the author of a video. If a director is unknown, someone in a similar role, such as writer, producer, etc. should be used. If both a director and another similar person is known, include both in the citation.
Uploader Group Name or LastName, Initial. [Screen name if different]. (Year, Month day). Title of video [Video]. YouTube. http://
EnglishTeacherEmma. (2013, January 30). 5 tips to improve your writing [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgkRoYPLhts
Producer, W. W., & Producer, D. D. (Executive Producers). (Date range of running series). Title of series [TV series]. Studio or distributor.
TV Episode or Broadcast:
Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Season X, Episode XX)[TV series episode]. In P. Producer (Producer), Series title. Studio or distributor.
Shore, D. (Executive Producer). (2004-2012). House [TV series]. Fox Broadcasting.
TV Episode or Broadcast:
Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005, February 6). Failure to communicate (Season 1, Episode 11)[TV series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive Producer), House. Fox Broadcasting.
Artist’s Last Name, Initials. (Copyright year). Title of album [Medium of recording]. Label.
Brooks, G. (1989). No fences [Album]. Capitol Nashville.
Artist’s Last Name, Initials. (Copyright year). Title of song. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Label.
Brooks, G. (1989). Friends in low places. On No fences [Album]. Capitol Nashville.
If citing the writer of a single song or track, provide [Recorded by Artist name] after Song title.
Host’s Last Name, Initials. (Host). (Year, Month Date). Title of podcast episode (Episode #) [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of Podcast. http://
Van Nuys, D. (Host). (2007, December 19). First things first (No. 232) [Audio podcast episode]. In Shrink Rap Radio. http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/
From TED website:
Speaker, A. A. (Year, Month day). Title of video [Video]. TED Conferences. http://
TED. (Year, Month Day). Name of Speaker: Title of Video [Video]. YouTube. http://
From TED website:
Stevenson, B. (2012, March). We need to talk about an injustice [Video]. TED Conferences. http://www.tedtalks.com/bryan_stevenson_we_need_to_talk_about_an_injustice
TED. (2012, March 5). Bryan Stevenson: We need to talk about an injustice [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c2tOp7OxyQ8
Photographer/Publisher Name. (Year). Title of image [Image type]. Title of site of image. https://
Sijgers, H. (2014). Sidewalk [Photograph]. Flickr. https://farm6.staticflickr.com/5024/5691941274_0819b1e5a3.jpg
Title of work [Type of image]. (Year). Title of image site. http://
Flu epidemic [Photograph]. (1919). History.Net. http://www.history.net/photo/flu-epidemic-art/collections
[Subject and type of work]. Title of image site. http://
[Untitled illustration of a sleeping dog]. Pix. http://www.sleepinganimals/pix.com
Personal communications are works that cannot be retrieved by a public group, and include personally-conducted interviews, emails, live speeches or lectures, letters, or non-archived classroom discussions.
Personal communications are only cited with in-text citations and are not included as a reference entry on the references list.
Title of Dictionary. (Year). Title of online dictionary. http://
Merriam-Webster. (2020). Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. http://www.merriam-webster.com/
Author Name, Initial. (Year). Title of entry. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of dictionary/encyclopedia (edition). Site name or publisher. http://
Centanni, L. (2015). Donnybrook. In M. Jones (Ed.), Encyclopedia of terminologies (2nd ed.). Stansbury University. http://www.stansbury.edu/encyclo_terms/donnybrook/
Title of listing. (Publication Date). In Title of Wiki. http://
User experience. (2016, January 13). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User_experience&oldid=836732966
Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Publication Year, Month Date). Title of presentation. [Paper presentation]. Title of Conference, City, State, Country.
Fraenza, C. & Nagle, L. (2015, March 2-4). The use of plickers to increase student achievement and engagement: An informal implementation. [Paper presentation]. Teaching of Psychology Conference, Farmingdale, NY, United States.
Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis [Doctoral dissertation or Master's thesis, Name of College]. Database Name.
Hoy, C. A. (2010). The adult learner in the online writing course. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota]. Proquest Digital Dissertations.
Include a letter designation after the publication year for each source:
Author's Last Name or Organization Name, Author's First Name Initials. (Publication Year-a). Include the remainder of citation information based on the type of source used.
American Psychological Association (2022-a). Careers in psychology. http://www.apa.org/careers/resources/guides/careers.aspx
American Psychological Association (2022-b). Continuing education programs in psychology. https://www.apa.org/education-career/ce
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., ... Author, Z. Z. (Publication Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume #(issue #), pp-pp. https://doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx
Aad, G., Abbott, B., Abdallah, J., Abdinov, O., Aben, R., Abolins, M., AbouZeid, O. S., Abramowicz, H., Abreu, H., Abreu, R., Abulaiti, Y., Acharya, B. S., Adamczyk, L., Adams, D. L., Adelman, J., Adomeit, S., Adye, T., Affolder, A. A., Agatonovic-Jovin, T., … Woods, N. (2015). Combined measurement of the Higgs boson mass in pp collisions at √s=7 and 8 TeV with the ATLAS and CMS experiments. Physical Review Letters, 114 (2), 191-203. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.191803
App Creator. (Year). Title of app or software (Version number) [Mobile app]. App Location. http://
Gowalla. (2011). Groupon (Version 16.15) [Mobile app]. App Store. http://itunes.apple.com
Name of Group or Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month day). Tweet text [Note thumbnail, image, or link, if in original Tweet] [Tweet]. Twitter. http://
Macdonald, N. [@normmacdonald]. (2020, January 23). My mother and I are doing a Q and A on Instagram! Follow me and ask us anything! [Link provided] [Tweet]. Twitter. http://www.twitter.com/normmacdonald
Name of Group or Author, A. A. [Username, if group]. (Year, Month day). Content of post up to first 20 words [Description]. Facebook. http://
Douglas, D. (2020, January 23). Why is it that when I do everything that is asked of me, including sitting quietly through a work week [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. http://www.facebook.com/douglasd2016
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